Partial Hip Replacement
Partial Hip Replacement: Types, Causes and Reasons for this Procedure
There are instances where a person may not be eligible for total hip replacement but is suffering enough from joint pains to be considered for hip surgery. In this situation, partial hip replacement may be a viable option. Partial hip replacement, also called hip hemiarthroplasty, is a procedure where only the femoral head of the damaged hip joint is replaced. The acetabulum portion is relatively left alone.
Causes and Reasons for Partial Hip Replacement
Broken and fractured hips are the most common reasons for partial hip replacement. There can be several factors that can lead to broken hips in a person and these include the following conditions:
* Rheumatoid arthritis
* Traumatic arthritis
* Perthes disease
* Congenital dislocation of the hip
* Developmental dysplasia
* Avascular necrosis and many other degenerative diseases involving the hip bones
Osteoarthritis is the degeneration of the cartilages located on the end of the hip bones. With this condition, the cartilage wears away, causing the hip bones to directly get in contact with each other. The constant rubbing of the bones against each other can cause extreme pain to a person and may lead to stiffness and decreased mobility.
Rheumatoid arthritis is the inflammation of the synovial membrane in the hip joints. It causes the abnormal production of synovial fluid, which is extremely damaging to the articular cartilage of the hip bones.
Traumatic arthritis is a condition that often results from hip fracture or severe hip injury. Usually, this occurs when there is extreme damage to the articular cartilage. Patients suffering from this condition may experience stiffness and chronic pain in the hip area.
Avascular necrosis or osteonecrosis is a condition where the head of the femoral bone dies due to lack of blood supply. This may be caused by diseases, dislocated or fractured bones, excessive alcohol intake, and long-term use of medications that contain large amounts of steroids.
Perthes disease, congenital dislocation of the hip, developmental dysplasia and hip fractures are not necessarily main reasons for partial hip replacement surgery. They may, however, play a part
in the degeneration of the hip bones which prompts physicians to perform hip surgery on patients.
Types of Partial Hip Replacement
Partial hip replacement is categorized into three types: unipolar hemiarthroplasty, bipolar hemiarthroplasty, and resurfacing hemiarthroplasty. Unipolar hemiarthroplasty is often used on elderly patients and is performed to replace the fractured head and neck of the femoral bone. Bipolar hemiarthroplasty, on the other hand, involves the replacement of the femoral neck and head with the addition of an acetabular cup. It is often used on younger patients. Resurfacing hemiarthroplasty involves the replacement of the femoral head surface only.
Of the three types, bipolar hemiarthroplasty is by far the most common procedure used on partial hip replacement patients.
When is Partial Hip Replacement Necessary?
Partial hip replacement may be recommended for patients suffering from extreme pain and discomfort on their hip area. Individuals should work closely with their doctors to determine whether this procedure is indeed the right method of treatment for them. Typically, this hip surgical procedure is only recommended to patients who only have one part of their hip joint damaged. In other cases, the doctor may require the patient to undergo total hip replacement, which is riskier and harder to perform.
Partial hip replacement surgery has a high success rate and it offers better advantages to patients in terms of recovery period. Patients who undergo this procedure do not have to spend more time in the hospital to recover and they may be allowed to move freely after only a few days from surgery.